Audit or Track All Commands on Linux|Centos|RHEL|Ubuntu|Debian

On a Linux system, we get information about all commands executed on Linux shell by monitoring execve() system call. This article provides information on audit or track all commands on Linux|Centos|RHEL|Ubuntu|Debian system.


  • How to audit all commands on Linux|Centos|RHEL|Ubuntu|Debian?
  • Audit all executed commands on a Linux|Centos|RHEL|Ubuntu|Debian system
  • Audit all system calls on a Linux system
  • Linux audit all system commands


Execute following commands in the Linux shell to track all command execution events on Linux system run time without restarting auditd service.

# auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b32 -S execve -k allcmds
# auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b64 -S execve -k allcmds

Make the above rules permanent by adding the following lines in /etc/audit/rules.d/audit.rules file.

# Track all commands
-a exit,always -F arch=b32 -S execve -k allcmds
-a exit,always -F arch=b64 -S execve -k allcmds

Restart auditd service and validate configuration.

# service auditd restart
# auditctl -l
-a always,exit -F arch=b32 -S execve -F key=allcmds
-a always,exit -F arch=b64 -S execve -F key=allcmds

Following are the special audit rules to track or monitor all commands on Linux shell for specific user or exclude specific user and monitor all users.
Audit/Track all commands execute by root user
# To 
auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b64 -F euid=0 -S execve -k root-cmds
auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b32 -F euid=0 -S execve -k root-cmds

Audit/Track all commands by any user but exclude root user
auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b64 -F euid!=0 -S execve -k allcmds
auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b32 -F euid!=0 -S execve -k allcmds

auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b64 -F euid>0 -S execve -k allcmds
auditctl -a exit,always -F arch=b32 -F euid>0 -S execve -k allcmds

Audit Logs Validation

# ausearch -k allcmds

time->Sun Sep 15 01:10:16 2019
type=PROCTITLE msg=audit(1568490016.998:272): proctitle="date"
type=PATH msg=audit(1568490016.998:272): item=1 name="/lib64/" inode=79069 dev=fd:00 mode=0100755 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00 obj=system_u:object_r:ld_so_t:s0 objtype=NORMAL cap_fp=0000000000000000 cap_fi=0000000000000000 cap_fe=0 cap_fver=0
type=PATH msg=audit(1568490016.998:272): item=0 name="/usr/bin/date" inode=12591834 dev=fd:00 mode=0100755 ouid=0 ogid=0 rdev=00:00 obj=system_u:object_r:bin_t:s0 objtype=NORMAL cap_fp=0000000000000000 cap_fi=0000000000000000 cap_fe=0 cap_fver=0
type=CWD msg=audit(1568490016.998:272):  cwd="/root"
type=EXECVE msg=audit(1568490016.998:272): argc=1 a0="date"
type=SYSCALL msg=audit(1568490016.998:272): arch=c000003e syscall=59 success=yes exit=0 a0=89e970 a1=8b6ed0 a2=81cf10 a3=7ffd0723e5e0 items=2 ppid=1591 pid=1984 auid=0 uid=0 gid=0 euid=0 suid=0 fsuid=0 egid=0 sgid=0 fsgid=0 tty=pts0 ses=1 comm="date" exe="/usr/bin/date" subj=unconfined_u:unconfined_r:unconfined_t:s0-s0:c0.c1023 key="allcmds"

The above output notifies that root user executed date command.

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